Saturday, March 14, 2020
Organisational Culture of Aldi Essays Organisational Culture of Aldi Paper Organisational Culture of Aldi Paper which operate separately from each other within specific market boundaries. These individual groups were owned and managed by the two brothers. Their mother however maintained a small grocery store close to their home to make ends meet. Karl and Theo attended middle school and then went on to do training with Karl doing a training at the delicatessen and Theo at his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s grocery store. After returning from army duty after the second world war in 1945, they took over their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s store and in the post war years the brothers expanded the business rapidly. In 1948, soon after the German currency reform, the AlbrechtsÃ¢â¬â¢ incorporated their business as the Albrecht Discount store (Aldi). The two brothers however split in 1960 over a dispute on whether to sell cigarettes at the Till or not. Aldi expanded internationally in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s , specifically expanding into the UK in 1989 with a total of 421 outlets in the UK. Introduction As the economic or business environment is increasingly changing and getting more dynamic, it is very essential for organisations and companies to change their organisational culture to adapt to this changing environment and therefore achieve a competitive advantage over its competitors. Culture can be defined as a set of shared values, shared beliefs and customary ways of thinking doing things, which shape and guides the ways of organisational members. Culture is therefore very crucial as it has the ability to influence the processes or the activities of employees and the functioning of the organisation without necessarily imposing measures and control. All Organisations posses a distinct form of culture with some having more than a single culture. This culture is usually very difficult to measure, change and most especially change. This report is going to present the current culture of Aldi, critically examining its current culture and possible proposal for a change in culture. It identifies the current organisational culture, its strengths and weaknesses and make recommendations necessary for an organisational culture change. A descriptive methodology will be used to determine the current culture of the Organisation, through research and survey from the OrganisationÃ¢â¬â¢s website and from current employees. This is going to give us a general picture of the current culture and also analysed to determine how effective the current culture is. Having given a brief summary of what this report is going to contain, I will now discuss the detail of Aldi Ã¢â¬Ës current culture and a possible culture change of the Organisation in the main part of the report below. ALDIÃ¢â¬â¢s CURRENT CULTURE AND FINDINGS Edgar ScheinÃ¢â¬â¢s (2004) model of culture which is widely accepted, considers Organisational culture in three different levels , each distinguished by its visibility and accessibility by individuals. These levels are artefacts and creation, values and beliefs and basic assumptions. However, Charles Handy( 1978), suggested Organisations could be classified into a broad range of four cultures. This formation of culture will depend u[on a whole host of factors including company history, ownership , organisation structure environments and others. One of the cultures he suggested was the Ã¢â¬Å"Power CultureÃ¢â¬ which he suggested reflects the concentration of power of a family-owned business, either extremely large or small. AldiÃ¢â¬â¢s organisational culture has been highly influenced by its founders. The cultural values and rules of Aldi clearly reflect the OrganisationÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy , guiding principles and strategy. Dieter Brandes a former Managing Director of Aldi described the culture as one of Ã¢â¬ËsimplicityÃ¢â¬â¢. The Aldi model which is based on a simple concept of which is the provision of highly quality products at low prices, is clearly understood by managers, employees and customers. The managers at all levels and the employees pay particular attention to economic efficiency and are very cost conscious. Waste or defects is not tolerable in the organisation at any point, therefore the staffs have a culture of striving to avoid the possibility of waste. This culture originally instigated by the founders of cost efficiency could be demonstrated, for Theo Albrecht is said to have personally switched off the lights in offices when there was enough daylight from outside. This concept of Ã¢â¬Ëcost watchingÃ¢â¬â¢ extends into all areas of the value chain , including the development of new techniques for the warehouse management or for the transportation of goods. This is very obvious in the Aldi stores as they have a buy your own bag policy where the customers have to purchase their bags or bring along their bags for shopping. The aim is to find small improvements in all areas and to develop pleasure in achieving small successes. This culture of continuous improvement, is accompanied by the strong focus on the development and implementation of solutions. According to Brandes, the people of Aldi can be described as practitioners, new ideas and solutions are tried, rather than being exposed to detailed analysis, if they prove to be successful then they are implemented quickly. In addition to its focus on continuous improvement and economic efficiency, the organisational culture is also characterised by determination and persistence. As outlined above, there have been very few changes in AldiÃ¢â¬â¢s business approach since its foundation. Aldi has consequently pursued its business concept and has resisted temptations such as expanding its number of products, diversifying into other areas and changing its cost leadership strategy. This is an important trait of its culture namely continue doing what they do best. This Organisational culture is reinforced by AldiÃ¢â¬â¢s recruitment and selection approach. Aldi tend to select, promote and train managerial talents from inside the organisation. Important qualities for potential managers are a focus on economic efficiency, fairness towards others , including suppliers modesty and reservation towards the public and the press. These behavioural characteristics are reinforced by job descriptions outlining clear goals and competencies. Aldi managers have usually been employed from different sections of the organisation, both from the stores and warehouse with these employees having a broad knowledge and experience on how the organisation operates and have digested and accepted the organisational culture. For example the area managers will have to undergo a one year training program in which they learn about the structural and procedural elements of retail management, including store operations, administration and logistics and property management. An important part of this training includes AldiÃ¢â¬â¢s management system, including its focus on economic efficiency. The first part of the training takes place in the store where future area managers takes over the responsibilities of the store managers for a certain period of time. This Ã¢â¬Å"hands-onÃ¢â¬ approach used by Aldi aims at acquainting them with the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s operations and also its business philosophy and core values. During the second part of this training, the area managers will then work alongside the experienced colleagues , this will therefore help them learn their roles and responsibilities. This includes the tasks of planning, recruitment and organisation of the stores. The Aldi culture has been effective and has been the push for the organisation to be in the position and enable them to obtain the profits they have earned so far. Aldi has also grown internationally over the years, with the most recent globalisation in Poland in 2008 with a total number of 54 outlets at present. Aldi which originally had a reputation and being ridiculed as cheap selling low quality products, with their customers branded as poor and could not shop anywhere else, this did not however dent AldiÃ¢â¬â¢s profits and gradually the German consumers discovered that this poor reputation of AldiÃ¢â¬â¢s products was either undeserved or economically justifiable. Therefore Aldi was definitely able and is still able to strive for continuity and a going concern of the organisation with its current culture. However they are several criticisms of Aldi Ã¢â¬Ës current culture mainly due to the changes in the economic environment and the constant changes in consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviours. These criticisms are classified below as; NEED FOR CHANGE * Given the recent forces and changes in the economic environment and a constant increase in competition, it is absolutely necessary for Aldi to change and improve on certain cultural norm such as the culture which tolerates recent ideas being tried rather than being exposed to detailed analysis is outdated and ineffective. For example new products are not subjected to elaborate market research but are rather tested in three stores and if they achieve a fast moving pre-determined minimum turn over, then they are introduced in all other shops. However this is not an effective strategy because the shops chosen for the exposure might be situated in a strategic area, where particular customers are targeted and therefore a high turnover. This will definitely mislead the decision to accept this products which might lead to its introduction to other stores which might not produce the same turnover. * Aldi has also resisted the temptation of introducing and expanding its number of products and also diversifying into other areas, for example services such as banking services and other products such as mobile phones. The growth of the market recently is very rapid, with increasing demands and innovation and therefore organisations need to grow proportionately to be able to meet to the consumers demands and this can be achieved by expanding, with organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s constantly changing their strategies. * Another aspect of the Aldi culture which can be criticised refers to the culture of customers being obliged to buy their bags or bring their bags for shopping. Despite this being a cost effective method for Aldi and also a very efficient way of encouraging recycling, it is however very inconveniencing for some customers who will prefer to shop somewhere else, in a case where they forgot to bring along a shopping bag and therefore leading to a loss in income from these group of customers. * AldiÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is also reinforced by its selection and recruitment process or method. Aldi has a culture of internally selecting, recruiting and training of managers. This is cost efficient for the organisation and also enables them maintain their culture, but however this discourages innovations, idea and therefore promotes stereotypes and discourages initiatives and ideas. * The Aldi culture also is extremely focused on cost efficiency and ignores all the external and internal opportunities for growth and developments. The above points indicates that there is an important need for change in the culture of the organisation. Therefore, the above driving forces which can be classified under the main headings of external forces that is from customer needs and the external environment and also internal forces such as the need for organisational growth and restructuring. However these forces for change will be met by the driving forces against change. These forces can be distinguished into individual resistance and organisational resistance. Aldi Culture change. Richard Whittington and Michael Mayer (2002) argued that the reorganisation or the ability to redesign the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s structure frequently is now vital to Organisations. This therefore supports the fact that a change of culture is very critical to Organisations in order to improve their performance. Changing a culture generally means changing some of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, values and the customary ways of doing things. This is usually often disruptive as change is usually met with resistance. They are several underlying reasons why individuals resist change and they include: * Loss of Power base: It is very obvious that an introduction to a change in the current Aldi culture will be met with resistance most probably by the management as they will find it hard to cope with the fact that they might loss power or control of the situation. Dislike of Uncertainty and ambiguity: A change in the Aldi culture will mean the employees will be unsure of the future and this is definitely going to motivate a resistance. * Fear of unknown: An attempt at the culture change might lead to the need of employing new staffs externally, which will lead to pressure on the current Aldi employees as their current culture means recruitment of managers is often done internally. Effectively they will be a resistance to change due to the fear of what might happen. Perceived lack of new skills and loss of old: A change of Aldi culture could also be met with fierce resistance by individuals because they are not sure of how the new ways of doing things will be or if they will be skilled enough to cope with the new culture. They might also be some insecurities and fear of losing their old skills. Individuals therefore have different reasons as to why they resist change and therefore their reactions will be different. This reaction could either be positive, such as enthusiasm, excitement, fulfilment, survival and others. However some individuals may have a negative reaction to change such as anger, stress, confusion, conflicts, fear and depression. Change does not however affect just the employees or members of the organisation, it does affect all the stakeholders of that organisation, either positively or negatively. Therefore the Aldi culture change will also affect its customers, suppliers, shareholders and the society as a whole. Culture change therefore, needs to be done in a very systematic, dynamic and slow way as a rapid change will definitely lead to disaster as people might resist to change and sometimes even become aggressive. They are several theories which were put in place in order to assist Organisations in the change process. Some of these theories include; * LewinÃ¢â¬â¢s Force Field model of change: Lewin stated that an organisational change will occur when the forces for change strengthen and the restraining forces lessen or if both forces occur simultaneously. This is effective in the case of Aldi employees who are likely to resist to a change in culture. The management should therefore focus on lessening the resistance to change by training communicating the benefits of the change to the staffs and the other stakeholders of Aldi. Information will be very crucial in attempts at lessening the resistance. However this theory might not be very effective as there is no stated fact hat, by communicating the benefits of change, they will be a corresponding decrease in the resistance as some individuals might just be adamant and reluctant to change. * StrebelÃ¢â¬â¢s possible change paths : According to Strebel, the Management of Aldi, should divide the employees according to different levels of change, that is those individuals who are closed to change, those who are open to change and the third level will be those who can be opened to change. By so doing, the management can therefore use three different options depending on the level. These options could either be proactive, reactive or rapid. This theory is can be used in different parts of the organisation and therefore it is flexible and also it is advantageous because it gives detailed strategies to be used. However this theory could be complicated, and is also based on the assumption that the individuals in Aldi are grouped in the different levels. The Beer et alÃ¢â¬â¢s six steps could also be used by the management of Aldi to implement the cultural change. This is a fairly easy model to use in an Organisation where it is easy to change and it is also very detailed and involves the employees and therefore mobilises commitment. Therefore if the individuals or employees in Aldi are open to change, the Beer et al model could be implemented effectively to minimise the resistance and successively change the culture. However if Aldi is a very anti -change organisation, then it will be difficult to deal with the resistance using this model * Kotter and Schlesinger (2008): This model states possible ways to deal with resistance to change and I will therefore recommend the management of Aldi to use this model to reduce the resistance to change because it involves; a) Education and communication; The management should begin by communicating and educating the current stakeholders of Aldi, the reasons for change, the benefits for a ulture change and also the way or method by which the change is going to occur. This will therefore increase commitment and reconcile opposing views. b) Participation and involvement: AldiÃ¢â¬â¢s management should also involve the employees in the planning process of change as well as the implementation as this is going to reduce fear and opposition from the stakeholders. ) Facilitation and support: The management should be able to encourage and support those involved in t his change, by developing individual awareness of the need for change, as well as self awareness of feelings towards change. d) Manipulation and Co-optation: The top management could also use a method of bringing forward proposals that appeal to the specific interests of AldiÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholders. ) Explicit and implicit coercion: This is another method, which could be used where there is profound disagreement between those concerned with the change, and a very little probability of anyone shifting their ground. This method will resort to threat and force but no violence. f) Negotiation and agreement: Powerful individuals and groups may resist changes that may damage their intersests, as such the top management could overcome this resistance by compromising and negotiating to meet their concerns. However useful this model is to overcome the resistance, it has got some short falls and it could also be generally viewed as a vague model. It will be very time consuming for the top management to use educative measures, participative and involvement methods to overcome this resistance especially in instances where there is an urgent need for change. Also negotiation can encourage the individuals to strike deals and future problems may arise from those who feel they were manipulated into accepting the change. In the explicit and implicit coercion, the person implementing the change must be powerful for this method to be effective. It is therefore very likely that the top management of Aldi is going to be met with resistance if they are to change their culture, however should be ready to overcome this resistance from the individuals and groups by taking into consideration some of these models mentioned above. Recommendations Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman, opined that some of the riskiest work we do has to do with altering the OrganisationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. Emotions run high and almost everyone feels threatened. However this is absolutely necessary because if Organisations do not have strong notions of themselves as it is reflected in their values, myths, stories and legends, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s only security comes from where they live in the organisation. If this is threatened and in the absence of some grander corporate purpose, then the closest thing they have to meaning in their business lives has been threatened. I strongly agree with this as the employees and other stakeholders of Aldi, have become very comfortable with the current culture that they do not see the need for change despite the increasing change in the business and economic environment . f these changes becomes very threatening, then the entire Organisation will be threatened. The following recommendations could benefit Aldi Ã¢â¬Ës new culture. i. Aldi could take a major step of diversifying its product range and trying other products depending on the market and environment. Aldi could do a survey and research on the needs and requirements of customers in different area and also carry out some benchmarking with its competitors to identify and implement new products. An example of this could be illustrated by Tesco, who diversified their product range, introducing products like tesco mobile which is successful and generating more profits for its shareholders. ii. Secondly , AldiÃ¢â¬â¢s top management should also endeavour to take actions on their recruitment process, by recruiting from out of the Organisation, therefore bringing into their organisation, new skills, knowledge and initiatives which could help to enhance their innovative strategies and create some competitive advantages. ii. Aldi could also focus less on their cost efficiency technics and focus more on customers satisfaction. By exceeding customers expectations, it is more likely to create customer value for money and also create loyalty. If loyalty is created, then the customers could be willing to buy at any increased prices due to a reputation already perceived. Aldi can also provide customer satisfaction by trivial things such providing shopping bags to their customers. iv. Aldi could also become more customer focused by introducing loyalty cards and systems such as the points collection system done by competitors such as SainsburysÃ¢â¬â¢ nectar cards, and the TescosÃ¢â¬â¢ club card which was first introduced by Tesco and is one of the main reason why Tesco became top retail groceries stores in the UK. Above are a few recommendations which Aldi could adopt as a new culture to be able to become unique and gain some competitive priorities. Conclusion Ann Cunlife (2008) stated that Organisational culture is important for four reasons; it shapes the image that the society has for an organisation, it influences organisational performance, it provides direction for the company, and it helps attract and retain motivated staff. This is very important in the growth of organisations and the culture of an organisation will determine and influence their performance and the achievement of their goals. This implies that organisations at some point need to ensure that their current culture is good enough to enable them achieve their goals , improve their performance and maintain growth. This might often lead to change which will not be an easy task but is a necessary task. Aldi will not take a single day to change its culture as the culture did not occur in a dayÃ¢â¬â¢s time. It is therefore very important for the top management to understand that a change in culture should not be done rapidly as this is going to lead to a disaster and disorder. However time should be taken and this change and ideas should be discussed and communicated properly to the various stakeholders before a gradual adoption of the new culture is carried out. A radical change of culture could never be effective as it could be illustrated in the Barclays/Ã¢â¬â¢ Lehman case study which led to several staffs departure during the merger. References Mullins L, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 9th Edition, Pearson Education. Buchhannan D, Huczynski A,(2003), Organisational behaviour: Emerging Realities for the workplace Revolution, 2nd Edition. Johnson, G. , Scholes, K. , Whittington, R. (2006). Exploring Corporate Strategy. Essex: Pearson Education. Robbins, S. .. , Judge, T. A. (2007). Organisational Behaviour. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Buelens, M. , Broeck, H. V. , Vanderyden, K. , Kreitner, R. , Kinicki, A. (2006). Organisation Behaviour. Berkshire: McGraw Hill Education. Anon. (2009). Edgar H. Scheins Model of Organizational Culture . Retrieved September 3rd, 2011, from Business mate. org: businessmate. org/Article. php? ArtikelId=36 Anon. (2010). Frederick herzberg motivational theory. Retrieved September 3rd, 2011, from Businessballs: businessballs. com/herzberg. htm Anon. (2003, October Thursday 09). Critical succss Factor for Change. Retrieved September 3rd, 2011, from AMEinfo. com: ameinfo. com/29295. html Area managerÃ¢â¬â¢, http://uk. aldi. com/recruitment/recruitment_2. html (accessed 12. 09. 11). www. aldi. co. uk accessed on 04/09/2011
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
The Competitive Global Market and Change - Research Paper Example Moreover, the report will also attempt to identify the benefits or drawbacks witnessed by Apple and its employees due to the affect of globalisation. Different Countries Involved Besides, its headquarters in United States, Apple majorly operates in various other countries, such as United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, Canada, Italy, China, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, France and Netherlands among others. More than 350 Apple stores are established all over the countries across the world (Apple Inc, 2012). Thus, its focus on the development of supply chains and major partners in the business is necessary in order to maintain sustainability in the global markets. Utilization of Outsourcing In the late 2000s, Apple decided to outsource its products from various countries where raw materials are available at cheaper rates. The motive behind outsourcing is to earn significant margin of profit while experimenting in developing creative products. A report by New York Times revealed that 90 perce nt of raw materials used in AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iPhones are manufactured abroad and are outsourced. Major sections, such as display panels and circuitry from Taiwan and Korea, advanced semiconductors from Germany, chipsets from Europe, memory from Japan and Korea and uncommon metals from Asia and Africa which are later assembled and packaged in China. Technological companies depend upon the availability of low-cost materials and therefore, focus on countries that provide the advantage. The outsourcing strategy gained the momentum of growth and subsequently, Apple earned a considerable amount of profit strengthening its foothold in the global markets (Duhigg & Bradsher, 2012). Benefits of Globalisation Similar to many other multinational companies, Apple has benefitted by a large extent due to globalisation. The company shifted most of its production unit jobs to countries where cheaper workforces are available along with legal support and favourable economic conditions. This has been evi dent by a report that revealed only 13,920 employees are associated with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s US based plant compared to 27,250 employees working at other countries, i.e. nearly twice more than US. The report further revealed that the American employees took over approximately US $750 million whereas; workers employed abroad took only US $320 million. Thus, the comparison in cost related to wages can be identified as almost double in US compared to abroad (Freeland, 2011). Globalisation has also resulted in the inflow of creative talents from across the world, to which the company gives prime importance. The incredible talents in Apple are encouraged in various ways to develop products that are unique in its class acting as a Ã¢â¬Ëtrend setterÃ¢â¬â¢ in the industry. These engineers earn healthy paycheques from the company which are being supported by the cheap costs incurred by the bottom-line employees working abroad (Freeland, 2011). Drawbacks Due to Globalisation Steve JobsÃ¢ â¬â¢ main target behind the incorporation of Apple was to become the leader of the industry in terms of creative products. His aim was to dominate the market in regards to sales and have a partially monopolistic environment prevailing in the global markets. However, due to globalisation many competitor brands have used the strategy of manufacturing abroad and reap equal benefits in terms of cheap labour and raw materials. Therefore, the
Monday, February 10, 2020
Visual Representation of Public Health Leadership Theory - Assignment Example Similarly, the visual representation is directly linked to healthcare organizations, this is more specific, as compared to the literature of Zalenznik, A. (1977), which discusses the leadership aspect, but does not link the discussion directly to health care organizations. The visual representation is also diverse, with regard to the purpose of healthcare organizations. In the literature, Vladeck (1992) considered that the major purpose of healthcare organizations is only the public interest. However, in the visual representation, it has been shown that healthcare organizations have other responsibilities that are not tied to the public, to fulfil. For instance, this shows that healthcare organizations have responsibilities to fulfil for the employees of the organization, other organizations of same interest and the state, and finally, the community and society, which can be labelled as the public. In addition, the visual representation provides a system that healthcare organizations can adopt in order to ensure that they fulfil their mandate to the public. In the literature, there was no provision of a system that could help healthcare organizations and their leaders to protect their clients, and fulfil their mandate to the public. However, by clarifying the values that a leader should embrace, as well as the different relationships they should value and strengthen, the visual representation offers public health organizations and leaders a way of ensuring that they fulfil their mandate appropriately. The visual representation is also broader in its approach to leadership in public health. This is not inclined to only one aspect of leadership, as in the case of Vroom (2007), who only addresses the situational aspects of leadership in public health. The visual representation has addressed the values of a leader, relationships, outcomes, as well as antecedents. This has also shown how the leadership values can be acquired by an individual.Ã
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Discuss Chaucers poetic methods Essay Discuss Chaucers poetic methods in presenting evil in the pardoners prologue and tale in the light of this comment.Ã In Chaucers time, the nature of evil related to any committing of the 7 deadly sins, consisting of greed, pride, blasphemy, sloth, avarice, wrath, lust and envy. The pardoners prologue and tale is comprised of many of these sins, the pardoner himself demonstrating the majority. Other characters, such as the 3 rioters also embody many of these sins. This essay will explore these characters as well as their evil natures and formulate an opinion how Chaucer presents evil in the pardoners prologue and tale. The pardoners evil nature is initiated from his physical description in the general prologue. He is described as having hair as yelow as wex and hood we wered noon a description immediately illustrating him as a rule breaker, as for most clergymen it was assumed they would cover their hair. In addition to this, he is described as having such glaryng eyen. In the medieval times, this amounted to the suggestion of evil; therefore, Chaucer has constructed the pardoner in such a way to ambiguously imply he may be somewhat evil. Critics, such as Spearing, have noted that the pardoners repellent outer appearance reflects his inner corruption. The description of his fake relics, such as the sayle that saint peter hadde and oure lady veyl are used to demonstrate his evil intentions; taking advantage of the peasants good faith by tricking them into buying fake relics, that are nothing more than pigges bones. From the onset, Chaucer has incorporated the theme of evil within the pardoner and has maintained this throughout the prologue and tale. The prologue outlines the pardoners admittance to his evil nature, and suggests he may even be proud of this. He boldly states that his sermons are constructed around the well-known Latin biblical phrase, radix malorum est cupiditas loosely translated as greed is the root of all evil. The missing word omnium from this is used to demonstrate his lack of biblical knowledge, which is emphasised by the repititon of this phrase throughout. In medieval times, it was common and often expected, for members of the church to know and practice in Latin. The pardoner admits to using pieces of Latin to saffron my predicacioun. This cooking imagery may suggest that he only uses Latin to reinforce his false position, and therefore highlighting his evil nature, and may relate to the sin of gluttony as he is referencing food, again reinforcing the evilness of his character. The pardoner states in the prologue, in the form of a confession, that he preche of no thyng but for coveityse. The repetition of this ironic language along with the shocking imagery that is portrayed through his rhetorical question will I live in poverte willfully? and his admittance to taking money from the povereste widye in the village paints an evil picture of the pardoner who is merely driven by greed. Some critics, such as Georgianna believe in the historical school of thought, and note that the pardoner is merely a vehicle for the substantial embodiment of the churchs abusement. It has been suggested and argued amongst several other critics that Chaucer had no other motive when constructing the pardoners character other than to criticize and highlight the wrongdoings of the medieval church. Many fake pardoners lived amongst the medieval audience, and carried out the same evil methods as the pardoner, all for the same motive; greed. As a result of this, anticlericalism grew popular amongst the peasants very quickly. Therefore, it can be suggested that the pardoners character was constructed in such a way to shine light on his evil nature and to draw parallels with the medieval church. The pardoners tale is a sermon against four particular sins; gluttony, blasphemy, gambling and drinking. He talks at length of each of these particular sins, giving biblical examples that he has twisted to his benefit, such as Adam and also his wyfe who were dryven for that vice. The pardoner is suggesting that gluttony was the downfall of Adam and Eve, when in fact it was temptation. To sermonize against drinking is massively ironic as the pardoner has admitted to needing a draughte before being able to think of a moral tale to tell the pilgrims irony in itself seeing as he should not have to think about a tale of morality. The fact that the pardoner is guilty of committing the very sins he preaches about only adds to his evil nature. Many critics, such as Ruth Nevo, suggest that the pardoner is a character in his own tale that he tells. The novelle that the Pardoner tells the pilgrims consist of three rioters. He begins by stating the setting of the three men; in the develes temple metaphorical for a tavern. The three rioters are established as sinners from the very beginning, already being guilty of committing two of the seven deadly sins; drinking and blaspheming. The repeated suggestion of a brotherhood and addressing each other as brethren has underlying irony as each rioter is ultimately killed by each others greed. It has been suggested that as the rioters are not named, and therefore are nt personally addressed, that they have been constructed to suggest the embodiment of sin. Their deaths are quick and do not have much effect; instead, the focus is on the sins that they do commit. This stresses that their evil natures are what caused their own deaths. However, it can be argued that although the pardoner presents evil in the pardoners prologue and tale, the fact that he acknowledges this suggests he is fully aware of his evil nature. Koff suggests that the pardoner is not so much evil as he is bold. This can be argued to an extent, as he does admit to being a ful vicious man, yet states that a morale tale yet I yew telle kan. This can be portrayed as being ironic, as he is fully aware of his evil nature, yet still believes that he can preach against the sins he so readily admits to committing. In addition to this, Chaucer does incorporate some good nature into the novelle in the form of the old man. It has long been questioned as to whether he is the personification of death himself, and therefore cannot die, or whether he is merely an instrument used to emphasise the evil nature of the three rioters. His addressing of the three rioters as sires in comparison to the rude greetings of the rioters compares and relates age and innocence; the old man may have been faithful during his lifetime and therefore God will not take his life. In contrast, the young sinful rioters quickly come to their death through their own lack of faith. To conclude, I believe that a sinister exploration of evil is truly presented in the pardoners prologue and tale. Chaucer uses characterization of the pardoner and three rioters to present how corrupt medieval society was, as well as how readily sins were committed. The pardoners simile of as dooth a dowve sittynge on a berne to describe how he sees himself is used as an antithesis of his own character; as a dove carries religious connotations of peace and purity; the opposite to what the pardoner is. Despite infiltrating some holy and pure characters, such as the Old man, he only further emphasises the lack of good in the other characters. Overall, Chaucer constructs the prologue and tale in such a way to present several layers of evil in the Canterbury tales.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Survivor I walk. I wake. I work, when I want to. I create uneven labyrinths of letters, I word. He worded and He created what He called earth, water, and swamp. I sink as I drown in that swamp, the same slick color as my patent green boots. I stomp on my existence. My father called them Nazi boots. He wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t trying to be provocative; thatÃ¢â¬â¢s how boots look to him. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how I look at a pile of shoes, a serial number, even a bar of soap. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how I look at an Aleph, the first of Hebrew letters, the sound that precedes speech; its arms grow rigid revealing the swastika tattooed upon my memory. When they teach us what it means to be a Jew, they coat the letters in honey, and coax us to lick it off. A sticky, suffocating sweetness clings to us as we learn to read and later still as we try to escape who we are, but canÃ¢â¬â¢t. My education is not tied to those books, but to my self, myself as I march up narrow staircases of apartments atop stores atop Brooklyn cellars, numbers on my grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s arm as she washes the dishes and uses her own thumb as a pincushion. She canÃ¢â¬â¢t distinguish pain from life. She used to urge my aunts to keep on sewing. Ã¢â¬Å"Arbeit Macht Frei,Ã¢â¬ she said. Work frees. Iron gates and barbed wire. I stick myself with a safety pin and I bleed. My grandmother chuckles generously at my soft, suburban, spoiled hands. She would get me a Band-Aid but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know where she keeps them. The pressure stops the bleeding, and I get into my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s car. Go home. Sometimes I canÃ¢â¬â¢t tell whether persecution is an interruption of freedom, or if freedom is just how oppression looks from the perspective of the oppressor. The massah experiences subjugation as luxury. I scrub my own arms, trying to wash off the stain of white privilege, to find the Negro slave underneath. I breathe. I bathe. I believe. Sometimes I wonder what I believe. I wonder if IÃ¢â¬â¢m that homeless guy that I saw clutching his Bible. Inheriting the earth. Do I truly believe that God rewards the faithful and punishes the blind? Does this anonymous man deserve only 17 cents in a cup, while I have merited my $38,564 a year?
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Why is a well balance training diet essential for an athlete? A well balance training diet Is essential for an athlete. Good diet and nutrition can enhance sporting performance. Carbohydrates should form the basis of the sportsperson diet. For most athletes, a varied healthy diet will provide vitamins and minerals, as well as protein, to promote growth and repair of muscle tissues. Adequate fluid intake is essential to help performance and prevent dehydration. 55.What are the relative recommended percentage of CHOC, Fats and Protein for a. Athletes b. ) Non-athletes 56. What are the pre-performance recommendations for an athlete? A pre- performance routine Is a consistent procedure that athletes use to prepare themselves for competition. It is recommended that athletes must time their carbohydrate intake, a substantial amount of carbohydrate (200-egg) in the 2-4 hours prior the event. The carbohydrate foods most suited to pre-exercise eating are low-fat, low-fiber and low to moderate in protein; these are less likely to cause gastrointestinal upset.Liquid meal supplements (such as a protein shake) or reverberate-containing sports bars (such as Powerboat Performance Bar) can be useful for athletes who suffer from pre-event nerves or have an unpredictable pre- event timetable 57. What is a carbohydrate loading? Explain the process. Carbohydrate loading Is a strategy Involving changes to training and nutrition that can maximize muscle glycogen (carbohydrate) stores prior to endurance competition. This diet typically involves a 3-4 day Ã¢â¬Ëdepletion phase' involving 3-4 days of hard training plus a low carbohydrate diet.This depletion phase was thought to be necessary to stimulate the enzyme glycogen synthesize. This was then followed immediately by a 3-4 day Ã¢â¬Ëloading phase' involving rest combined with a high carbohydrate diet. The combination of the two phases was shown to boost muscle carbohydrate stores beyond their usual resting levels. 58. Why is it though beneficial? To what types of athletes? The extra supply of carbohydrate has been demonstrated to improve endurance exercise by allowing athletes to exercise at their optimal pace for a longer time.It is estimated that carbohydrate loading can improve performance over a set distance by 2-3%. An individual who exercises continuously at a moderate o high Intensity for 90 minutes or longer Is likely to benefit from carbohydrate loading. Typically, sports such as cycling, marathon running, longer distance triathlon, cross-country skiing and endurance swimming benefit from carbohydrate loading. 59. What is recommended for an athlete to eat/drink during competition? It is recommended that a sport drink containing 30 grams of carbohydrate and 1 5 grams of protein (In 500 ml water) per hour of exercise could be taken.With multiple events back to back, a larger amount of this beverage should be consumed 1 org recommended for an athlete to eat/drink after competition? Post-workout nutri tion squires two things: protein to aid in protein synthesis and carbohydrates to replace muscle glycogen. Egg. Chicken breast (protein) with broccoli and brown rice (carbohydrates) 61 . What is meant by the term supplementation? The word Ã¢â¬Å"supplementÃ¢â¬ means exactly that: a nutrient or group of nutrients (vitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrates, fats and oils) that are meant to supplement, but not substitute for a healthy diet that you eat on a regular basis.Nutrition supplements come in a variety of forms: pills, capsules, powders, liquids, and even in gel form. The cost of nutrition supplements can range from almost Ã¢â¬Å"at costÃ¢â¬ to being outrageously expensive. 62. Are there any benefits of supplementation of vitamins, minerals, and protein to performance? The body is unable to manufacture vitamins, so diet must supply them as vitamins are essential to maintain bodily functions. Protein is responsible for the growth, repair and maintenance of body tissue the use of protein supplements is common amongst power and strength athletes such as weight-lifters, rugby league and rugby union players. 3. Are there benefits from the use of sports drinks; liquid meal supplements, calcium supplements; iron supplements? Why? The benefits of sports drinks are; Convenient, easy to consume 64. What evidence is there for against vitamins/minerals supplementation? Loss of time, effort and money. Overdoses of the fat-soluble kind are the real culprits. The results of overdoses are many. For example, an overdose of vitamin A could cause ringing in the ears, blurred vision, hair loss and a host of other effects. Excessive quantities of some vitamins and minerals can be unnecessary, expensive and potentially dangerous. 5. What evidence is there for against creating supplementation? Creating is possibly unsafe when taken with a high dosage. There is some concern that it could harm the kidney and the liver, or heart function. Creating also causes muscles to dra w water from the rest of the body and could cause dehydration. 66. What evidence is there for against caffeine supplementation? Caffeine can cause insomnia, nervousness and restlessness, stomach irritation, nausea and vomiting, increased heart rate and respiration, and other side effects.Caffeine can make sleep disorders in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) worse. Larger doses might cause headache, anxiety, agitation, chest pain, and ringing in the ears. Large goes may be unsafe and can cause irregular heartbeats and even death. 67. Explain physiological strategies for recovery strategies? Egg. Cool down and hydration. Physiological recovery strategies aim to remove the metabolic by-products of exercise through a cool down period as well as replace lost fluids and energy.Cool down: The cool down, or active recovery, is a group of lower intensity exercises performed immediately after exercise to remove waste products, decrease muscle soreness (DOOMS), improve mu scular relaxation, bring the cardiovascular system back to rest and allow time to reflect on the training or performance. This could involve short Jogging repetitions, slow swimming or similar low intensity activity. Static reduce the risk of injury. Hydration: To replenish fluid lost during training or games the athlete should consume approximately one litter of water for every kilogram of body weight lost.The addition of carbohydrates will speed up fluid replacement as well as refueling muscle glycogen stores. The foods eaten in the 30 minutes immediately after exercise should be medium to high glycerin. Sports drinks are useful because they provide fuel and fluid but should be limited to the 30 minute period following exercise. Solid foods, such as fruit, should be encouraged as they provide additional nutritional value. 68. Explain the neural recovery strategies for recovery egg. Hydrotherapy, massage. Neural recovery strategies such as hydrotherapy and massage help replenish th e nervous system.The change in chemicals found in muscles following heavy bouts of exercise or psychological stress can be addressed by these neural strategies. Hydrotherapy: Hydrotherapy involves the use of water to relax, soothe pain and assist metabolic recovery whilst providing support for movements which eliminate Jarring and straining movements. Typical hydrotherapy methods include spas, underwater massage and swimming pools (heated and non-heated). Active exercise can be incorporated into hydrotherapy sessions allowing a gravity assisted environment.Massage: The main purpose of massage is to assist in reducing training fatigue. It can also be helpful in a preventative way in reducing localized muscle tension that can with time lead to overuse injury. 69. Explain the tissue damage recovery strategies egg. Cryptography Cryptography: Cryptography, or cold therapy, is the local or general use of low temperatures to remove heat from a body part. The goal of cryptography is to decr ease pain and inflammation, promote vasoconstriction and prevent the build up of waste products.Various forms of cryptography have become popular as recovery strategies for many athletes. Examples of various forms are cryptography are ice packs and a Cryogenic chamber. 70. Explain the psychological recovery strategies, egg. Relaxation. Psychological recovery strategies aim to disengage the athlete from the performance. Heart rate, breathing and body temperature remain elevated post exercise and may take time to drop as do anxiety levels about the performance or true performances. Strategies such as relaxation assist to bring these levels to normal levels.Following intense training and demanding performances, athletes may experience symptoms of low concentration, lack of motivation and increased levels of anxiety. Psychological strategies can play an important part in emotional and possibly spiritual recovery by assisting in recovery of concentration, lifting motivation and decreasin g anxiety levels. Some psychological strategies that can be used to enhance recovery are outlined below. Debriefing Ã¢â¬â Effectively evaluating a performance can be useful way to provide emotional and psychological support after training or competition. This should focus on the process not the outcome.Debriefing allows the athlete to achieve Ã¢â¬Ëclosure' with regards to a past performance and set goals for future performances. This is usually logical, rational discussion removed from the hype and the emotion of performance. Contingency planning Ã¢â¬â Simple strategies or distracted, such as mood-lifting activities, which are used in situations such as a major performance setback or traumatic event. Social support -Athletes need to build up a network of support contacts outside their athletic lives. Relaxation skills Ã¢â¬â These relax in many different ways, with some preferring to read a book, listen to music or watch television.Specialized relaxation techniques are als o widely used, including meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, visualization, breathing exercises, positive self-talk and flotation. The athlete needs to practice only one or two techniques on a regular basis for these to become effective tools to use to aid recovery. The choice of relaxation methods is quite individual and involves experimentation to establish which technique works best. Rest and sleep Ã¢â¬â Rest days are essential and a least one ay per week should be a non-training day.This allows time for physical and psychological recovery as well as time for other interests and activities. Adequate sleep (7-9 hours) is regarded as probably the most important recovery strategy as it provides regeneration and restoration of the body's systems to allow adaptation to training. Too much sleep however, can be detrimental, contributing to sluggishness and lethargy. How does the acquisition of skill affect performance? 71 . What is meant by the term Ã¢â¬Ëskill acquisition? S kill acquisition refers to the process that athletes use to learn or acquire a new skill.A skill can be defined as an act or task such as typing or drawing, or in the instance of sport, catching, throwing, and running. 72. What is meant by cognitive stage? The cognitive stage of skill acquisition is the early identification and understanding of the skill to be learned. Individuals focus on what to do, that is most of the learning activities during this stage will be in the mind, egg. Watching, thinking, analyzing, reasoning, Judging and visualizing, rather than lots of practice. During this stage the learner develops an in-depth understanding of the skill to be acquired. 73. What is meant by associative stage?The associative stage of skill acquisition really focuses on the idea of practice with the learner learning how to do it. Practice at this stage increases the learner's ability to perform the skill or task. They may not necessarily perform the skill well but have an understandi ng of how to do it. Most learners stay in this stage for a long period of time, with most not progressing to the next stage. 74. What is meant by the autonomous stage? The autonomous stage of skill acquisition revolves around executing a skill automatically without having to stop and think about what to do next or how to o it.It is an advanced level of performance where the individual can perform the skill fluently and instinctively and where outside influences do not affect the outcome. It may take individuals a long time to achieve this stage with many never reaching it. This may be due to the training demands, the complexity of the task or a lack of motivation. 75. Provide an example of how someone would progress through the stages of skill acquisition. An example of an individual progressing from the stages of skill acquisition would able to perform a certain skill without failure and loud have a skill as a second nature. 6. Describe the characteristics of a learner (personality , heredity, confidence, prior experience, ability) The learner brings many influence the capacity of the learner to acquire skills. Personality, heredity, confidence, prior experience, and ability particularly influence the direction of the learning experience. These characteristics influence the speed with which that person may acquire a skill. Personality: Refers to an individual's characteristic way of behaving and develops as a result of infinite social interactions and learning experiences throughout life.From a motor learning point of view, certain aspects of personality tend to be favorable with certain learning environments for example elite coaches tend to select athletes not only with superior physical talent but also those who possess positive learning attributes such as determination, enthusiasm and dedication. Learners whose personality reflects positive ways of behaving are more receptive to instruction and advice, more cooperative in performing set tasks and more help ful in creating a productive learning environment.If they possess patience, a willingness to try new things, listen to advice and can co-operate with OTOH other team members and the coach, they are more likely to have a positive outcome from a skill learning experience. If however an individual loses patience easily, cannot accept advice or cannot share experiences with others they will be slower in developing their skills. Heredity: Refers to the genetic characteristics inherited from our parents. These are unchangeable and limit the dimensions of our potential. The environment determines if we can reach the limits set by heredity.Specific hereditary characteristics influence the potential for success in specific ports/skills. Confidence: As an individual begins to learn skills and experiences success, they begin to develop a sense of self-belief in their ability to perform. Some level of confidence is internally generated, based on how the learner sees themselves (related to their personality). This confidence will then pass into the next level of learning. By learning and performing skills from a simple to a complex level, confidence will rise as the individual is more likely to experience success as they develop their skills.If however, they are given complex tasks early in their placement and they experience frequent failure, confidence is more likely to fall, which may slow down improvements in the individual's skill level. Prior Experience: If an individual has participated in an activity which involves similar qualities, such the hand/eye co-ordination found in hockey, they may be able to learn the skills involved in other sports such as cricket or golf more effectively. It can also be seen between sports such as basketball and netball, and gymnastics and diving.Ability: Ability is the ease with which an individual is able to perform a movement or routine. We often all these individual's gifted or talented as they often show ease and precision when exe cuting a skill. Ability can also be seen in the way in which an individual is able to learn process and implement new skills. Ability incorporates a range of factors, such as sense of acuity, perception, reaction time and intelligence, which combine to allow the individual to do readily what is intended. 77. How can the physical environment affect the skill acquisition?The physical learning environment can have a positive and negative impact on the learning process and is a major factor in the development of skills. The learning environment refers to everything outside the learner, including the weather, the skill itself, the situation it is practiced in, and information from coaches. 78. How can the nature of the skill affect skill acquisition? Stability of the environment (open or closed skills) the precision of the movement (gross or fine skills) the distinctiveness of the beginning and end points (discrete, serial or continuous skills) Timing (externally paced or self-paced skil ls). 9. What is an open skill? Close skill? Gross Motor skill? Fine motor skill? Extremely paced? Internally paced? Continuous skill? Discrete Skill? Serial skill? Examples? Open Skill: occurs in an unpredictable and frequently changing environment (weather, field, opponents) where the timing and the placement of the performance are dependent upon factors outside the control of the performer. Performance of the skill is greatly influenced by external factors and as such most open skills are externally paced. The unpredictability of the environment forces the performer to respond in a variety of ways.Close Skill: occurs in a stable and predictable environment, where the timing of the skill is self-paced and to a large extent, the reformer determines the place where the skill will be performed. Gross Motor skill: involve the use of large muscle groups (arms and legs) and include such things as walking, Jumping, running and kicking. Fine Motor skill: involve smaller muscle groups and f ine movements, such as catching a tennis ball, playing darts and positioning the hand and fingers during a dance performance. Extremely Paced: where the factors external to the performer set the time of execution of the movement.Rhythmic performances such as gymnastics, dancing, and aerobics, are externally paced as the movements must be performed in time with the music. Internally Paced: where the performer determines the time and pace of execution. Examples include serving in tennis and a corner kick in soccer. Continuous skill: A continuous skill is one that has no real beginning or end but is maintained in a repetitive fashion. The starting and finishing point of these skills are determined by the performer, not by the skill itself. This includes the leg action when running, cycling or swimming.Discrete skill: A discrete movement skill has a clearly defined beginning and end. It may include a throw or kick or a forward roll in gymnastics. Serial skill: this skill requires a numb er of separate skills to be performed in a specific order to achieve the set movement required. Activities such as bowling in cricket where a run up, a delivery phase and the follow through need to be combined for effective performance. 80. How are the relevant performance element incorporated into practice? For effective performance in game or competition, athletes need to be able to perform movements under pressure.Performance elements such as tactics, strategies and team plans need to be part of skill practice to enable optimal performance. Egg. Decision making & strategic and tactical development Decision making: Athletes need to make many decisions that will influence the quality of the performance. These include decisions such as who to pass to, whether to shoot for goal or pass, or decisions to accelerate in a cycling or distance running event. Coaches need to provide opportunities for decision making in practice so the athlete can improve their skills resulting in clear deci sions when performing.Strategic and tactical development: Some sports have a high strategic and tactical component. In tactical sports such as basketball, touch football or cricket, the learning environment just reflect the game situations to develop players understanding of how to with game play are can be similar across some sports, such as moving into space or marking a player. Athletes can develop an awareness of the tactics required and apply these skills in a variety of game situations. Tactical development requires practice of pressure situations similar to a game, rather than stationary practice or drills.As tactical development improves, game like practices can become more complex allowing for development of decision making and problem solving. 81 . What are the 4 types of practice methods used to learn skills? The 4 types of practice methods used to learn skills are massed, distributed, whole and part. 82. Describe each, giving examples. When would each be best used Ã¢â¬â for what types of skill and/ or types of learner? Massed: Massed practice occurs when one skill is continuously practiced in a session with only brief rest periods or none at all.This may involve a variety of drills aimed at improving the one skill performed one after the other. Distributed: Distributed practice can follow one of two forms. One form is when a range of skills, for example soccer dribbling, passing, and shooting. The other is where one skill is practiced, either through a single drill or a variety of skill drills, and broken up by moderate rest periods. Whole : refers to practicing a skill in its entirety, such as a softball pitch, whereas the part method involves a skill being broken into smaller components and each subsoil practiced separately, such as a basketball lay-up.Part: involves learning a part before adding another related part. Many coaches use a combination of methods, where the whole skill is taught, and then if difficulties arise, the skill is broken down and taught as the part method. Regardless of the way it is initially learnt and practiced it eventually needs to be put into a whole skill practice and performance or the co-ordination of the parts cannot occur effectively. 83. How do instructions vary according to the characteristics of the learner? 84. What is feedback?Feedback is the process of providing a performer with information about the nature or result of their performance. The performer will receive information from internal and external sources which may be concurrent or delayed. 85. The sources of feedback are internal and external. Explain these. Feedback can come from internal ND external sources; it may be given at different times such as concurrent or delayed; and it may provide different information such as knowledge of performance and knowledge of results. Internal feedback information received from the senses as a result of movement or self-talk.This helps athletes develop a kinesthesia sense or feel for a movement which allows them to distinguish between a skilled or less skilled performance. For example, when passing a netball, the athlete feels the ball in their hands and is aware of the ball leaving the hand as they can see, feel and hear it moving through the air and being caught by another player. External feedback is information received from external sources (outside the body) such as the crowd or the environment. 86. The types of feedback are knowledge of results (KERR) and knowledge of performance (KIP). Explain each and give examples.Knowledge of results (KERR): suggests how successful the skill was performed, and comes from an external source. This could include a coach discussing the outcome of a performance with the athlete, an athlete seeing the ball drop into the basket from a Jump shot, or from score boards. If the skill execution is successful the athlete is aware of the need o repeat the performance. If results are not favorable, a change must be made to improve per formance. Knowledge of performance (KIP): information received about how well a skill was performed. It may be internal or external.For example a diver may gain information from an external source such as video replay about the position of her body during a movement or a basketball may put up shot and feels the execution is incorrect resulting in the shot being missed. 87. The timing of feedback can be concurrent or delayed. Explain each with examples. Concurrent feedback: information received during a performance. This is most often internal feedback but can also be from external sources. This feedback allows for immediate correction of body position to improve results during the performance of a skill.For example, during a tennis serve, the server recognizes that their ball toss is off direction. This concurrent feedback allows the player to stop the serve and improve the toss, rather than continuing the serve and being forced into error. Delayed Feedback: information provided to the athlete after the skill has been performed, and is therefore received too late to produce a response at the time. An example of allayed feedback is a comment from the coach at the end of the activity, at half time or from video analysis after the game.This information allows for changes to technique in future performances. 88. How is feedback used as learner's progress through the stages of skill acquisition? Feedback is an essential component in the successful acquisition and development of skills, regardless of the stage of acquisition or age of the learner. Feedback provides information about the performance that allows the learner to adjust and improve or continue efficient performance. 89. What are the characteristics of a skilled performer? List and briefly explain what they mean?A skilled performer demonstrates characteristics and abilities which allows them to perform consistently at a very high level. Kinesthesia sense: Kinesthesia refers to the sensory information rece ived from the body about their body position and awareness of limbs during a movement. A skilled athlete's neuromuscular pathways are trained to Ã¢â¬Ëfeel' the movement resulting in better coordination and greater ability to make corrections and modifications while executing the movement. Anticipation: A skilled performer is capable of predicting hat might happen next, by reading cues, and choosing the appropriate response to the action.This gives skilled athletes an advantage over other performers as they can position themselves in preparation for the next phase of play to counteract an opponent's move. Anticipation is particularly important in externally paced activities or where fast movement and decision making is required. For example, by watching the ball from the bowler's hand, a skilled cricket batsman can anticipate the bounce shot. Consistency: Skilled performers demonstrate greater consistency resulting in fewer errors during a performance. An unskilled athlete may occa sionally Ã¢â¬Ëfluke' a good performance whereas a skilled athlete can perform well over and over.Skilled performers have progressed to the autonomous stage of skill acquisition, resulting in an automatic performance of skill. Unskilled athletes make gross errors frequently and rely on external feedback to correct these errors for future performances. Skilled performers use internal feedback and knowledge of performance. Thus they correct small errors during performance to demonstrate greater consistency and efficiency. Technique: Skilled athletes tend to maintain correct technique despite fatigue or the name situation. They have developed their skills to be fluent, smooth and well performed.The movement is more economical, will not use as much energy, and is phonemically correct and therefore less likely to cause injury. Mental Approach: Mental approach is the ability of an athlete to control their mind as they work towards a movement goal. Skilled athletes are able to achieve thi s through goal setting, visualization, concentration and focus. They are often more competitive, ambitious, confident and committed than unskilled athletes. They are more capable f controlling anxiety and arousal resulting in optimal performance and reduced errors.They are able to perform skills as part of complex movement pattern and strategic play while making complex decisions. The mental discipline of an athlete becomes increasingly important as they move towards the elite level in their sport. 90. How do we recognize a skilled performer? A skilled performer is often stronger, more flexible, better coordinated, balanced and fitter than unskilled performers. They are able to perceive, decide and act in a manner that is efficient in terms of both energy and time. 92. What is subjective appraisal? Examples?
Monday, January 6, 2020
Today in America we face many controversial problems. With strict gun control, Americans cannot feel safe, and to some the thought of not being able to use a firearm in self-defense is very frightening. We Americans should never have to be in fear of not being able to protect ourselves, especially in the comfort of our own home. How are strict gun control laws and regulations going to reach the estimated 65 million gun owners that own approximately 240 million firearms (Just Facts Gun Control)? The answer is simple, they canÃ¢â¬â¢t. There must be an end to gun control, its problems significantly outweigh any good intentions it has, and besides there is no doubt about it, America is a safer place when the citizens are able to own firearms.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Many of the gun control laws that are already in effect can cause more harm than good. If a person wanted to purchase a gun because they knew someone had intentions of hurting or killing them, they are out of luck due to waiting periods that have been established by laws like the Brady Act. In a certain survey done by the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics showed that 80% of state prison inmates that committed a crime with a firearm said that they got their firearm from a family member, friend, street buy, or another illegal source. There will never be any laws, background checks, or waiting periods that will stop criminals from getting their firearm in this manner. Also there will never be laws that will get rid of all the guns that are on the streets or in illegal circulation (Stranger to the Truth). Firearms are not something that should be taken lightly and they have serious consequences, but it is not the gun that is at fault; the responsibility lies in the hands of the individual. It is not the guns that kill people; people kill people. If activists want to blame something or somebody for crimes maybe they should stop targeting firearms and maybe consider the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the cau se of violence. Canada is an example where the media is limited to what it is able to show to the public, and because of the limits, violence is much lower. There are also many things that activists fail to mention in their attempt to give firearms a badShow MoreRelatedGun Control And The Federal Government892 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFor years gun control advocates pushed for a law passed by the federal government. For years this has not worked as the government has not wanted to touch the matter and have potential backlash. Although the federal government has not done much and does not seem to be doing anything any time soon, the states have huge potential to start the change. State governments can decide what laws can be passed and how serious their guns laws will and should be. 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